2022 Best Sand Filters for Above Ground Pool
If you want to keep your above ground swimming pool clean while reducing the cost of maintenance, it is essential that you install a reliable and best sand filter for above ground pool. The primary function of this sand pool filter system of above ground is to get free of all the dirt and the undissolved waste in the water. The lint filter and the hair or the skimmer basket and basket do an essential role when it comes to the maintenance of the cleanliness of the swimming pool. The filter is a necessary part of the system. let’s find out more about these filters.
How to Find Good Sand Filter for Above Ground Pool
The size of the filter of your pool relates to the size of the pool pump. Very small, the filter may break, and the pool pump might get burn. The risk is less when purchasing a filter that is large rather than purchasing a one that is very small; it would be better if you can keep this in your mind when looking for a filter. So it would be better if you match the filter at least to pumping capacity of the pool pump.
Best Above Ground Pool Sand Filters Review Summary
|Rank||Product Name||Review Score||Get Latest Amazon Deal|
|#1||Intex Krystal Clear Above Ground Pool Sand Filter Pump||10||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(10 / 10)
|#2||Hayward S210T93S ProSeries 21-Inch 1.5 HP Above Ground Pool Sand Filter||10||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(10 / 10)
|#3||Best Choice Products Pro Above Ground Pool Sand Filter||9.7||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.7 / 10)
|#4||4500GPH 19" Sand Filter w/ 1HP Above Ground Pool Sand Filter||9.5||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.5 / 10)
|#5||Sand Master Soft Sided Above Ground Pool Sand Filter System||9.5||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.5 / 10)
|#6||Hayward VL40T32 VL Series 30 GPM Above Ground Pool Filter System||9.4||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.4 / 10)
|#7||Blue Wave 22-Inch Sand Filter Above Ground Pool filter System||9.3||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.3 / 10)
|#8||Hayward SM1906T 19" Sand Master Above Ground Pool filter System||9.2||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.2 / 10)
|#9||Best Choice Products Pro 2400GPH 13" Above Ground Pool Sand Filter||9.1||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.1 / 10)
|#10||Hayward S166T92S ProSeries Above Ground Pool Sand Filter System||9.1||Check Price & Deals on Amazon
(9.1 / 10)
- 2022 Best Sand Filters for Above Ground Pool
- Here are the best sand filter for above ground pool in 2022
- #1. Intex Krystal Clear Above Ground Pool Sand Filter
- #2. Hayward S210T93S ProSeries Above Ground Pool Sand Filter
- #3. Best Choice Products Pro Above Ground Pool Filter Sand
- #4. 4500GPH 19″ Sand Filter Above Ground Pool Filter
- #5. Sand Master Soft Above Ground Pool Filter
- #6. Hayward VL40T32 VL Series Above Ground Pool Sand Filter
- #7. Blue Wave 22-Inch Sand Above Ground Pool Sand Filter
- #8. Hayward SM1906T 19″ Sand Master Above Ground Pool Filter
- #9. Best Choice Products Pro 2400GPH Above Ground Pool Filter
- #10. Hayward S166T92S ProSeries Above Ground Pool Sand Filter
- Three types of above ground pool filters
- What size filter do I need for my pool?
- Select the right size of pool filter
- Which type of pool filter is best?
Here are the best sand filter for above ground pool in 2022
⇒ Employing the best sand filters for above ground pools would be a very prudent choice as they are cost effective and also easy to operate and maintain compared to other types of filtration systems. The Intex Krystal Clear Sand Filter Pump is one of the best sand filters for above ground pools. It weighs 40.9 pounds and is delivered with two 1 ½ inch hoses with the necessary connectors for an easy and hassle free DIY installation. It would also include the inlet fitting for the superlative “Hydro Aeration” to ensure you get the best and nothing less. The size of the tank is 16 inches and it will hold an optimum of 120 pounds (55 Kg) of sand for efficient filtration of the water in pool.
Review Summary Intex Krystal Clear Sand Filter Pump
Operated on 110~120 Volts it has a six stage easy controlled functional system to ensure you enjoy fast and optimum filtration with the best sand filter for above ground pools. It is choosing between filter, rinse, back wash, recirculate, waste and closed when you have to do the needful to ensure the water is always clean, crystal clear and healthy. It is ideal for tanks with either a minimum of 5,500 gallons (20.8 cubic meters) or a maximum of 19,600 gallons (74.2 cubic meters) of water. It is equipped with an easy to set timer that has two conveniently operated 12 hour preset cycles ensuring operation of the best sand filter for above ground pools at your whim and fancy.
Conforming to the stringent UL/CSA standards the Intex Krystal Clear Sand Filter Pump is the best sand filter for above ground pools and is backed by a reputed name in the swimming pool equipment industry. It has an efficient turnover rate whilst in operation of 2,450 GPH ensuring quick filtration of your pool.
⇒ Hayward a name synonymous with pool equipment with an 80 year indelible history behind them offers the Hayward S210T93S ProSeries 21-Inch 1.5 HP Sand Filter Pump which is undoubtedly the best sand filter for above ground pools. It is bestowed with the efficiently operated patented multi-port, 7- position specially designed and manufactured “VariFlo” system. Set the required operation selecting from rinse, back wash, recirculate, filter, waste, winter and closed for fast action filtration. This ensures optimum flow even at lower pressures for superlative and fast filtration.
Review Summary Hayward S210T93S ProSeries 21-Inch 1.5 HP Sand Filter Pump
The 1 ½ HP PowerFlo Matrix pump, along with the highly efficient Pro-Series best above ground sand filter systems combine to ensure the water is constantly clear, clean and healthy. The tank is designed and manufactured from Polymeric materials which are color fast and all weather proof. In an 8 hour continuous turnover filtration at a flow rate of 44 Gallons per minute (GPM), 21,120 gallons of water would be cleaned, cleared of debris and pumped back to the pool. The quantum water filtered would be enhanced to 31,680 in a 12 hour period.
The self-cleaning under drain including the slotted laterals in a 360 degree design in all Pro-Series pool filters aided by the integral diffuser at the top ensures even distribution of water passing through. Every cubic inch of sand is involved in the efficient filtration system ensuring the Hayward S210T93S ProSeries 21-Inch 1.5 HP Sand Filter Pump to be the best sand filters for above ground pools. It is operated on 110~120 Volts with power consumption at very affordable levels even if you are to run it on either the 8 hour or 12 hour filtration cycle.
It is the efficient flow rate which ensures that the power consumption is kept at the minimum possible. The filter and the pump are mounted on an injection molded thermoplastic base which is corrosion free and ensures it withstands the vagaries of Nature.
⇒ Combining a 1HP pump and 175 pounds of sand the Best Choice Products Pro Above Ground Swimming Pool Pump Sand Filter is the best sand filter for above ground pools. The complete system revolves around the filter tank which is designed and manufactured to the highest international standards using high grade thermoplastic. It is made to last a very long time providing exceptional service all through its lifetime. It would stand the tough elements of Nature and is corrosion free. Operated on 110~120 Voltage, 60 Hz, at 8.8 amps, it would pump through 4,500 Gallons per hour ensuring quick turnaround filtration in double quick time. It is designed for low cost operation but ensuring clean, clear and healthy water in the pool at all times.
Review Summary Best Choice Products Pro Above Ground Swimming Pool Pump Sand Filter
It is good for above ground pools with capacities 18,000 gallons and below and meets all required statutory standards. It is ETL listed and certified as independently tested and marked proof as meeting all applicable safety standards. This best above ground pool filter is also UL listed and has CSA certification ensuring it meets all required standards hence purchasing and using it would not entail any adverse issues that other sand filters could have. The specially designed multi-port 6 position control valve is easy to operate and with just one twist you could command it to perform the six tasks. Enables rinse, waste, filter, back wash, winter, and closed which would ensure you get the best out of this workhorse to keep your pool crystal clear.
The water flowing through would be exposed to the optimum sand surface thereby increasing filtration efficiency and when back washing is needed it would perform on par ensuring the cleanup is fast. The required hose and clamps are delivered with the best above ground pool sand filter hence it is a very simple DIY once you receive the unit. The strong and sturdy mounting tray would ensure that both the filter and pump are closely held together for efficient performance.
⇒ The pump and filter are designed and manufactured to high quality standards thus marrying perfectly together delivering superlative performance in filtering above ground pools to leave the water clean, clear and healthy. Sand is one of the most economical mediums in pool filtration and the 4500GPH 19″ Sand Filter w/ 1HP Above Ground Swimming Pool Pump does a great job with it. It is the best sand filter for above ground pools ensuring optimum flow rates with a low noise design also incorporated into it. Whilst being energy efficient it operates at the lowest decibels ensuring optimum filtration utilizing every cubic inch of sand to bring out crystal clear water. This is possible by ensuring the sand height level exposed to water is at optimum hence providing efficient filtration.
Review Summary 4500GPH 19″ Sand Filter w/ 1HP Above Ground Swimming Pool Pump
The performance of this best sand filter pump for above ground pool is further enhanced by the multi-port 5-way valve to ensure every operational aspect is controlled to optimum efficiency. It would also enhance quick back washing when debris and dust collected would need to be promptly flushed out. The pumps use a capacitor start system to provide uninterrupted operation for optimum performance.
A very large strainer basket with a clear plastic lid enables an unimpeded peep inside to enable cleaning of dirt and debris as and when required. It is equipped with an easy open and lock system for quick removal which would keep your system operating at optimum levels. This would be the best sand filter pump for above ground pool one which would last many years too.
⇒ If you are looking out for an economical filtering system for your above ground pool that is below 10,000 gallons in capacity then this would be what you should be buying. The Sand Master Soft Sided Above Ground Pool Sand Filter System is designed and manufactured for pools with a capacity of 9,600 gallons or less. This best sand filter for above ground pools would run at optimum efficiency with low cost operation when provided the right credentials to operate in. The 20 Gallons per minute flow rate is enhanced with the 110~120 Volt pump which has built in safety features to operate in any harsh environment.
Review Summary- Sand Master Soft Sided Above Ground Pool Sand Filter System
The multi-port, 4-way function control valve is the core of all operations in this best sand filter for above ground pools ensuring superlative performance at its best. The system operates very efficiently providing the most conducive operational environment to exude optimum efficiency. The 42 pounds of filtering sand held inside the corrosion resistant 12 inches tank ensures that every drop of water kisses the sand whilst passing through. This superlative passing through of water in the sand leaves all dust, dirt and debris behind whilst bring out crystal water into the pool.
The One Year warranty extended on the Sand Master Soft Sided Above Ground Pool Sand Filter System enhances its appeal among prospective users as it is promising to deliver a quality product for the discerning customer. This best filter for above ground pool is delivered with the necessary hoses and connectors. Two hoses of 1 ½ inches diameter and length 7.5 feet, the pump filter house and all other relevant accessories are supplied. It is an easy DIY operation and you could have the best sand filters for above ground pools up and running in double quick time.
⇒ A proud history of 80 years and the experience behind such an impressive pedigree is what Hayward brings to every product that they roll out of their manufacturing plants. It may be the best sand filter for above ground pools or just a small component for an obscure product. Hayward has always endeavored to bring cutting edge technology into the swimming pool industry and they have always led from the front. They have brought all their experience to the fore which has been backed by their indelible reputation.
Review Summary Hayward VL40T32 VL Series 30 GPM Sand Filter System
The precision designing of the components and ensuring they intricately align themselves is what makes the Hayward VL40T32 VL Series 30 GPM Sand Filter System very special. It is an easy DIY with every component designed for quick assembly. Energy efficiency is at optimum with maximum flow to provide precise performance matched pumps and filters in this best above ground pool filters. The multi-port valve ensures easy operation with the flip of a switch to maintain maximum flow even at low pressure.
Specially designed and manufactured filter bases in tough thermoplastic would stand the vagaries of Nature and perform at optimum levels when operational. The hose adaptors are provided which could be conveniently attached with the unit which would ensure easy installation and maintenance. Hayward offers their Hayward VL40T32 VL Series 30 GPM Sand Filter System which is manufactured to last many years with exemplary performance and high level of reliability. The tank is corrosion free and molded with tough and reinforced thermoplastic to ensure it would stand the test of time. The standards set by this best filter for above ground pool have been difficult to match by its competitors. Maintenance is very easy without much hassle and limited to ensuring the debris and dirty cleaned out when required.
⇒ The tank which is the main component in the Blue Wave 22-Inch Sand Filter System to be the best sand filters for above ground pools needs to be strong, sturdy and durable to last the rigors of Nature. It is indeed molded from one chunk of Polyethylene to exceed reliability and strength compared with many of its competitors. The material is corrosion resistant and strong with the ability to withstand the harsh operational conditions it would be put through.
Review Summary-Blue Wave 22-Inch Sand Filter System
The sand filter enables 24,000 gallons of water to pass through in a period of 8 hours ensuring the above ground pool is kept clean, clear and healthy. It is a DIY operation to set it up and towards that the assembly is very simple with most required accessories supplied with the unit. The system is delivered with the anti-corrosion base, superefficient pump, valves with 6-position multiport, tank connection hoses of 3” diameter, the required clamps, gauge, fittings and connectors. The best above ground pool filters is simple to operate as it is easy to install.
The pump operates at high efficiency which coupled with the precision engineering of the sand filter deliver optimum flow rates providing water free of bacteria, dust and debris. The pump is manufactured under stringent quality controls and is designed to effect years of quiet operation. To assist in the filtration system 220 pounds of sand trap all debris and other particles bringing back only high quality water back to the pool. The Blue Wave 22-Inch Sand Filter System could compare with the Hayward Pro Series, Waterway Clearwater and the Pentair/Sta-Rite Crystal Flo. It is in good company and with the versatile multi-port 6-function valve it is ready to tackle any filtration exercise. Back washing is made simple with the twist of the 6-multi-port valve.
⇒ Hayward has been a name to reckon with in the swimming pool equipment industry and has been innovating and introducing cutting edge technological products over the last 80 years. That is the reputation that they have built for themselves and is today in the forefront in this industry. The Hayward SM1906T 19″ Sand Master Above Ground Sand Filter is just one of the many hundreds of products they have introduced. The epitome in filtration is what this best sand filter for above ground pools has to offer and it is without doubt a superlative product. The highly efficient filtration coupled with the balanced back washing offer discerning pool owners just what they would need. Superbly cleaned and crystal clear water in their pools which would be safe for the family is all that they would want.
Review Summary- Hayward SM1906T 19″ Sand Master Above Ground Sand Filter
The corrosion resistant reinforced specially designed and molded tank is manufactured from heavy duty strong single mold thermoplastic to withstand the tough conditions which would be thrown at it by unrelenting Nature. Trouble free operation with minimal maintenance is what this best above ground pool filters from Hayward has to offer. The Hayward warranty which backs all their products would be made available to the Hayward SM1906T 19″ Sand Master Above Ground Sand Filter too.
The efficient flow of water through the sand filters ensures every cubic inch of sand is utilized to help in the filtration process hence leaving no grain of sand unturned to ensure clean, clear and healthy water in the pool would be the answer. Sand in one of the best mediums for filtration and this best filter for above ground pool reinforces that fact perfectly. The flow levels are consistent and efficient to provide superlative filtration.
⇒ Designed and manufactured especially for above ground pools with a capacity of up to 10,000 gallons with an ETL listing which authenticates that this best sand filter for above ground pools has been independently tested. It ensures that the sand filter meets all statutory safety standards and also carries the CSA certification. This ensures that the Best Choice Products Pro 2400GPH 13″ Sand Filter Above Ground is product that meets high standards in design and manufacture. The heavy duty pump operates at optimum efficiency and it is thermal protected with a strainer basket to trap any debris flowing through it.
Review Summary- Best Choice Products Pro 2400GPH 13″ Sand Filter Above Ground
This would ensure it would operate for years without causing much of a concern and breakdowns are completely eliminated. The valve is 4-way multiport and includes a system tray a built in gauge with the electric cable and three pin plug top which is protected by GFCI. The overall dimensions of the unit are 23.5 x 13 inches enabling it to operate from any convenient location near the pool.
Maintaining this best above ground pool sand filter is easy and hassle free with no drain on the purse. It is designed and manufactured to the highest quality standards with an efficient filtration system aided by sand which is one of the accepted mediums to obtain clean, clear and healthy water back to the pool. The powerful pump ensures that the water is flowed through at optimum pressure with every cubic inch of sand being utilized to ensure filtration at efficient levels. The pump draws water from the skimmer through into the filter tank and efficiently aids the sand to filter it and throw it back to the pool. The best above ground pool filters at optimum capacity would ensure 2,400 gallons per hour flows through it.
The filter tank is a single piece of thermoplastic has been blow molded to create a strong, sturdy, corrosion free unit which sits on a universal base that is also with no chance of being corroded as it is made of high grade plastics. The versatile 4-function control valve sits atop the filter tank enabling easy operation, whether it is filtration, back washing or just shutting it down.
⇒ The filter tank is corrosion free which has been designed and manufactured to withstand the vagaries of Nature and for long lasting high performance with tough color fast material. Built from a single mold it would stand the test of time as it is durable in use and operation. The 7-function patented multiport valve with its VariFlo technology an innovation by Hayward allows for easy operation between the various functions with a flip of the switch. Positioned conveniently on the top of the filter it could be changed between, filter, waste, winter, back wash, recirculation, rinse, and even left closed very easily.
Review Summary- Hayward S166T92S ProSeries Sand Filter System
Installation of the Hayward S166T92S ProSeries Sand Filter System is very easy and it could be up and running in double quick time without any professional help being needed. The system would ensure optimum flow even when the pressure drops ensuring every grain of sand in the filter is used to bring out clean, clear and healthy water into the pool. This is one of the best above ground pool filters and coming from the House of Hayward it stand by its promises and delivers quality at its best.
The 1HP PowerFlo Matrix pump on its anti-corrosion base couples together to ensure optimum performance is brought forth to keep the water in the pool crystal clear and clean. Very cubic inch of sand will be effectively used in the filtration process ensuring the water in the pool is cleaned and maintained at optimum levels.
Three types of above ground pool filters
There are three types of filters as the Sand filter, Cartridge filter, and the Diatomaceous earth filter. The sand filter comes as the default in most of the above ground swimming pools. Anyway, you need to have a sufficient amount of knowledge regarding about all these types to make sure that the maintenance of the pool systems is appropriate.
The sand filter
It is known as the oldest and the most inexpensive model of the filter in above ground pools. These filters get rid of waste and the dirt within the pool using the technique of backwashing or flowing of the water to the reverse way. At the time when the gauge of pressure shows growth of seven to ten lbs. above the usual operating pressure, you need to reversal wash the filter. These filers can get rid of waste which is small as twenty microns. Most probably these sand filters last for about five or ten years of time before they need to make a replacement, so this is known as an economic preference.
The cartridge filter
These filters are the latest types of filters which can remove the waste even it is small as fifteen microns, which is better than the sand filter system. Anyway, this filter might sometimes let large particles of trash to get back to the swimming pool water, mainly when the pump of the pool pushes a lot of water. For the cleaning purpose of the gathered waste and dirt, the cartridges need detach from the filter. These types of filters usually last for around one to three years of time before it requires a replacement.
These types of filters are the most effective out of the all the three filters, at the same time they are the most expensive. These filters are created to be more active, and they are capable of cleaning waste that is even as small as four microns. So by installing this filter into your pool, you can get clean and clear water all the time. Also though DE filters are high in price, they are durable, and you need not backwash them frequently.
Make sure you consider all these three filters before purchasing so that you can choose the right one according to your requirement and the available budget. The sand filter will be a good choice if you are looking for a filter with a rational function and a budget. The cartridge filter will be a better option if you are looking for a filter which is reasonable in finance and cleans small particles of waste. However, if you are here to purchase the most efficient filter, you need to for a DE filter which is the most effective and expensive one. Even though you pay a high amount, your money won’t be in waste as these filters last for an extended period.
2022 Amazon best selling sand filters for above ground pool
What size filter do I need for my pool?
Selecting the right size filter for the pool is not an entirely easy task, yet you need to make sure that your pool is clean, open and safe. So at first step of choosing the right size filter of the pool is to find the right size of the pool pump.
Most of the people end up with purchasing a pool pump which is bigger than the one they want. Most of the time this can be an expensive mistake. The more significant pool pumps are costly and might increase the energy consumption rather than a usual pump. The worse part of this is that a too large pump can even overpower the filter system. On the other hand, a pump which is very small might lack power which it wants to pump efficiently and to filter the swimming pool. Eventually, it might lead to the growth of algae or bacteria.
Select the right size of pool filter
Even though you have found the correct size of the pump, in case if you select a pool filter which is small, that would create too much pressure while making the material of the filter to break down and provide the filter ineffective. In some cases, the pressure that is produced by the tiny filters may cause pressure to build within the pump. As a result, it may cause explosions or damage seriously to the pool pump. So let’s go through the below guidelines to know how to find out the perfect size pool filter.
The amount of water your pool holds
Before you choose a pool filter, you need to find out how much of water your pool can contain. It is quite simple if you got a nice rectangular shape pool, but it would be difficult when your layout of the pool is complex. There are four types of designs as rectangular, oval, round and kidney.
Pool depth- no matter what is the shape of your swimming pool, you want to calculate the average depth of your pool. If you’re going to do it, you need to find the most in-depth section of your pool and the shallowest section to identify the average among them.
Gallons per minute
You need to calculate your pool volume in gallons. Once you do it, you need to figure the number of gallons per minute that you may need the pump to handle. Most of the owners of the pools want to run their pool pump for less than eight hours. In such cases, you need to figure out how many gallons you need within a minute. But for larger pools or commercial pools you preferably need to be able to run the swimming pool four times within the day, which means you need to pump it less than six hours.
Feet of the head
You will have to consider the piping between the pump and the pool which is known as the feet of head. When you have the head more, the GPM will reduce more. Moreover, you need to consider any valves and fixtures in the piping. At least you need to have an estimate about how many feet of piping is there among the pump and pool.
Select the pool pump
When you find out your feet of the head, and the GPM all you need to do is to find the right pool pump. Almost all the retailers or manufactures of pumps would offer you a chart which indicates the GPM capacity of the pump according to many feet of head lengths. So it would be better if you know the capacity of the pool and the requirements of the pump to purchase a somewhat large pump.
Which type of pool filter is best?
The sand filter is mainly a large container of sand which blocks the waste and much when the water goes through it. Mostly there are two types of filers that you can use in pools. But the most usual one is the high rate filter that utilizes sand as the medium to filter. However, the other sand filter is a rapid rate one which uses rock layers and gravel to the assistance of the topmost sand layer. When the water runs through the bed of sand, waste, and mud get trap by the particles of sand. Moreover, these filters can use Zeobrite if they want to increase the power of cleaning. These filter usually use twenty-grade silica sand which is able of blocking waste particles which are even small as twenty to thirty microns.
When it comes to the maintenance of these filters, the sand filters are the easiest ones to maintain. These filters need to be backwashed at the time the meter reads ten psi above the usual level of operating. You can expect this sand filter to last for about five to ten years with the use of proper maintenance.
These types of filters use fabric similar pleated cartridges or paper which are replaceable as their medium of the filter. These filters have a considerable surface volume which helps to trap anything that the water pushes across them. Usually, these types of filters have a single cartridge in them. Anyway, to a cleaning a large area, some of these models may have a couple of cartridges in the tank. These filters are known as the quad filters. They are capable of blocking even ten to twenty-micron small waste particles.
When it comes to the maintenance of cartridge filters, you need to remove the individual cartridges, soaked and sprayed when the pressure meter read more than the regular level of ten psi. But these filters are known as the most difficult ones to maintain, yet with the proper maintenance, they would last for around two to three years.
Diatomaceous Earth filter
The DE filter comprises with the skeletons of various microscopic sea organisms. It is the most complex type of filter that is available in the market yet, on the other hand, these filters are the most effective ones. It is because mainly they are capable of removing tiny particles, so they say Diatomaceous Earth filters to polish the water when it passes along the medium.
These filters operate by forcing the water across the DE that blocks the algae and the waste. These vertical cylinder tanks got lengthy, half moon, the shape of rectangular fingers or grids. A propagator that connects to a manifold or a collector, parts these grids and keeps them at the place. The water runs across the tank after that it runs across the diatomaceous earth. Afterward, it runs through the grids of the filter and at last into the manifold before the water returns to the swimming pool. These filters even remove the tiny particles like the three to five microns.
When it comes to the part of maintenance, similar to the sand filter, this need to be backwashed when the pressure meter says it is ten psi more than the regular level. Moreover, you need to put the new diatomaceous earth powder to the filter. These filters might last for about ten or more years according to your maintenance.